Staphylococcal Enterotoxins:


1.      Bergdoll, M.S. Enterotoxins. In Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections, 2. (1983) Academic Press,  London. (SEA-E)


2.      Freed, R.C., M.L. Evenson, R.F. Reiser, M.S. Bergdoll. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in  Foods. (1982)  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:1349-55.


3.      Bergdoll, M.S. et al. A New Staphylococcal Enterotoxin, Enterotoxin F, Associated with Toxic-Shock-Syndrome Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates. (1981) Lancet. 1017-21. (SEF aka TSST-1)


4.      Munson, S.H. et al. Identification and Characterization of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Types G  and I from  Staphylococcus aureus. (1998) Infection and Immunity. 66:3337-48.


5.      Su, Y.-C. and A.C.L. Wong. Identification and Purification of a New Staphylococcal Enterotoxin, H. (1995) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:1438-43.


6.      Zhang, S. et al. The Enterotoxin D plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus encodes a second enterotoxin determinant (SEJ).


7.      Owen, P.M. et al. Biochemical and Biological Properties of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin K. (2001) Infection & Immunity. 69:360-366.


8.      SEL, Dr. Pat Schlievert’s Group (Unpublished)


9.      Jarraud, S. et al. egc, A Highly Preventive Operon of Enterotoxin Gene, Forms a Putative Nursery of  Superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus. 2001. J. Immunology. 166:669-677. An Erratum to this article was published in J. Immunology 166:4259. (SEM, N & O)


10.   Reiser, R.F. et al. Purification and Some Physicochemical Properties of Toxic-Shock-Toxin. (1983) Biochemistry. 22:3907-12. (TSST-1)


11.   Reiser, R.F. et al. Production of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 by Staphylococcus aureus  Restricted to Endogenous Air in Tampons. (1987)  J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:1450-52.


12.   Schlievert, P.M. et al. Identification an Characterization of an Exotoxin from Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Toxic-Shock Syndrome. (1981) Infect. Dis.143:509-516. [This the first reference to Pyrogenic Exotoxin C. (PEC, aka SEF & TSST-1)]


13.   Schlievert, P.M. & J.A. Kelly. Staphylococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin C: Further Characterization.  (1982) Ann. Intern. Med. 96(6 pt. 2):982-986


Staphylococcal Enterotoxins as Superantigens:


1.      Taranta, A. Lymphocyte Mitogens of  Staphylococcal Origin. (1974) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 236:362-375.


2.      White, J. et al. The Vß-Specific Superantigen Enterotoxin B: Stimulation of Mature T Cells and Clonal  Deletion in Neonatal Mice. (1989) Cell. 56:27-35. [Note: This is the 1st paper to use the term Superantigen!]


3.      Marrack, P. & J. Kappler. The Staphylococcal Enterotoxins and Their Relatives. (1990) Science. 248:705-711.


4.      Johnson H. et al. Superantigens in Human Disease. (1992) Scientific American. April: 92-101.


5.      Hudson, K.R. et al. Two Adjacent Residues in Staphylococcal Enterotoxins A and E Determine T Cell Receptor Vß Specificity. (1993) J. Exp. Med. 177:175-184.


6.      Kotb, M. Bacterial Pyrogenic Exotoxins as Superantigens. (1995) Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8:411-426.


7.      Proft,T. & J. Fraser. Superantigens: Just Like Peptides Only Different. (1998) J. Clin. Immunol. Bernal, A. et al. 19:149-157.


8.      Al-Daccak, R. et al. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin D Is a Promiscuous Superantigen Offering Multiple Modes of Interactions with the MHC Class II Receptors. (1998) J. Immunology. 160:225-232.


9.      Jarraud, S. et al. egc, A Highly Prevalent of Enterotoxin Gene, Forms a Putative  Nursery of Superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus. (2001) J. Immunology. 166:669-677.


10.   LeClaire, R.D. and S. Bavari. Human Antibodies to Bacterial Superantigens and Their Ability To Inhibit T-Cell Activation and Lethality. (2001) Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 45:460-463.



Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxins as  Superantigens


1.      Imanishi, K. et al. Activation of Murine T-Cells by Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin Type A. Requirement for MHC Class II Molecules on Accessory Cells and Identification of Vβ Elements in T-Cell Receptor of Toxin-reactive T-Cells. (1990) J. Immunol. 145:3170-3176.


2.      Li, P-L. et al. The Superantigen Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin C (SPE-C) Exhibits a Novel Mode of Action. (1997) J. Exp. Med. 186:375-383.


3.      McCormick, J.K. et al. Functional Characterization of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin J, a Novel Superantigen. (2001) Infection and Immunity 69:1381-1388.


Shiga Toxin & Monoclonal Antibodies to SLT-1 & 2


1.      Strockbine, N.A. et al. Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against Shiga-Like Toxin from Escherichia coli. 1985. Infection and Immunity. 50:695-700.


2.      Pouch Downes, F. et al. Affinity Purification and Characterization of Shiga-Like Toxin II and Production of toxin-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies. Infection and Immunity. 56:1926-1933.


3.      Perera, L.P. et al. Isolation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Shiga-Like Toxin II of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in a Colony Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 1988. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:2127-213


4.      Padhye, V.V. et al. Production and Characterization  of Monoclonal Antibodies to Verotoxins 1 and 2 from Escherichia coli of Serotype O 157:H7. 1989. J. Med. Micro. 30:219-226.


Bioterrorism & Bacterial Toxins


1.      Christopher, G.W., et al. Biological Warfare—A Historical Perspective. 1997. JAMA. 278:412-417.


2.      Franz, D.R., et al. Clinical Recognition and Management of Patients Exposed to Biological Agents. 1997. JAMA. 278:399-411.


3.      Schmitt, C.K. et al. Bacterial Toxins: Friends or Foes? 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5:224-234.


4.      Greenfield, R.A., et al. Microbiological, Biological, and Chemical Weapons of Warfare and Terrorism. 2002. Am. J. Med. Sci. 323:326-340.